The extra chromosome affects the way the child’s brain and body develop, leading to developmental delays, intellectual disability and an increased risk for certain medical issues. Down syndrome is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability, affecting approximately 1 in every 700 children.
Is Down syndrome a developmental disability?
Developmental disabilities are severe, long-term problems. They may be physical, such as blindness. They may affect mental ability, such as learning disabilities. Or the problem can be both physical and mental, such as Down syndrome.
Is Down syndrome acquired or developmental?
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in an extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21. This extra genetic material causes the developmental changes and physical features of Down syndrome.
Is Down syndrome the most common intellectual disability?
Down syndrome is the most common and readily identifiable chromosomal condition associated with intellectual disabilities. It is caused by a chromosomal abnormality: for some un- known reason, an accident in cell development results in 47 instead of the usual 46 chro- mosomes.
What is Down syndrome classified as?
A medical term for having an extra copy of a chromosome is ‘trisomy. ‘ Down syndrome is also referred to as Trisomy 21. This extra copy changes how the baby’s body and brain develop, which can cause both mental and physical challenges for the baby.
What are intellectual or developmental disabilities?
Intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are disorders that are usually present at birth and that negatively affect the trajectory of the individual’s physical, intellectual, and/or emotional development. Many of these conditions affect multiple body parts or systems.
What are examples of intellectual disabilities?
For example, children with intellectual disability may:
- sit up, crawl, or walk later than other children.
- learn to talk later, or have trouble speaking.
- find it hard to remember things.
- have trouble understanding social rules.
- have trouble seeing the results of their actions.
- have trouble solving problems.
How does Down syndrome affect intellectual development?
Down syndrome can affect learning abilities in different ways, but it usually causes mild to moderate intellectual impairment. Children with Down syndrome have delays in speech and motor skills, and may need help with self-care, such as dressing and grooming.
Is Down syndrome autism?
An increasing number of children with Down syndrome are being diagnosed as also having autism or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD).
What is the difference between Down syndrome and autism?
Children with DS-ASD scored significantly higher than their peers with Down syndrome alone on all five subscales of the ABC: sensory function, social relating, body and object use, language use and social skills. Children with DS-ASD show less impairment in social relatedness than those with ASD only.
Can you have Down syndrome without intellectual disability?
The majority of children with Down Syndrome have mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. However while some show no sign of having an intellectual disability, others may have severe intellectual disabilities.
What is a developmental disability?
Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions due to an impairment in physical, learning, language, or behavior areas. These conditions begin during the developmental period, may impact day-to-day functioning, and usually last throughout a person’s lifetime.
Why is Down syndrome called Down syndrome?
Down syndrome is named after the English doctor, John Langdon Down, who was the first to categorize the common features of people with the condition. 2. Dr. Jerome Lejeune discovered Down syndrome is a genetic disorder whereby a person has three copies of chromosome 21 instead of two.
How does Down syndrome affect the brain?
We know that people with Down syndrome have difficulties with brain function, including problems with learning, memory and speech throughout life, as well as the onset in later life of increased cognitive problems associated with the brain changes of Alzheimer’s disease.
Does mosaic Down syndrome affect intelligence?
The mean IQ level of the mosaic Down syndrome group was significantly higher than that of the trisomy 21 group. Many subjects with mosaicism showed better verbal abilities, and some also demonstrated normal visual-perceptual skills in paper- and-pencil tasks.