Chromosomes are thread-like structures in which DNA is tightly packaged within the nucleus. DNA is coiled around proteins called histones, which provide the structural support. Chromosomes help ensure that DNA is replicated and distributed appropriately during cell division.
What is the role of chromosome?
The most important function of chromosomes is to carry the basic genetic material – DNA. DNA provides genetic information for various cellular functions. … Thus, chromosomes also perform the function of protecting the genetic material (DNA) from damage during the process of cell division.
What is the role of the chromosome in cell division?
What is the role of chromosomes in cell division? Chromosomes make it possible to separate DNA precisely during cell division. … During the cell cycle, a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two new daughter cells.
How many chromosomes are in a nucleus?
In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. Twenty-two of these pairs, called autosomes, look the same in both males and females. The 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, differ between males and females.
What are the two functions of chromosomes?
DNA present on the chromosome not only carries most of the genetic information but also controls the hereditary transfer. Chromosomes are essential for the process of cell division, replication, division, and creation of daughter cells.
What is the nucleus?
A nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell’s chromosomes. Pores in the nuclear membrane allow for the passage of molecules in and out of the nucleus.
What happens to chromosomes in the nucleus of a body cell when it forms reproductive cells?
Specialized cells in the testes and the ovaries, called germ cells, undergo meiosis to form the reproductive cells. The reproductive cells, spermatozoa and oocytes, have half the number of chromosomes as the parent germ cell.
What two chromosomes make a boy?
Biological sex in healthy humans is determined by the presence of the sex chromosomes in the genetic code: two X chromosomes (XX) makes a girl, whereas an X and a Y chromosome (XY) makes a boy.