Which of the following would cause phenotypic variation among organisms of the same genotype?
Phenotypes can be caused by genes, environmental factors, or a combination of both. Phenotypic variation, then, is the variability in phenotypes that exists in a population. For example, people come in all shapes and sizes: height, weight, and body shape are phenotypes that vary.
What are possible causes of phenotypic variations?
Phenotypic variations may be caused by differences in long-term programming of gene function rather than variation in gene sequences per se, and studies of the basis for inter-individual phenotypic diversity should consider epigenetic variations in addition to genetic sequence polymorphisms.
Why variation in genotype causes variation in phenotype?
Variation within genes leads to different genotypes , which can be seen by the individuals having different phenotypes . … Genetic and environmental variation combine together to produce these different phenotypes. All genetic variants arise from mutations .
How can the same genotype have different phenotypes?
The same genotype, when raised in different environments results in different phenotypes. Furthermore, different genotypes respond to the same environmental changes differently from each other.
What causes phenotypic plasticity?
Rather, phenotypic plasticity is a developmental process, and the reaction norms that we usually measure in the adult stage, or at reproductive maturity, are in fact the result of a positive feedback between environments and genes throughout the ontogeny of an organism (Schmalhausen, 1949; Smith-Gill, 1983; Pigliucci …
What are phenotypic effects?
An organism’s phenotype results from two basic factors: the expression of an organism’s genetic code, or its genotype, and the influence of environmental factors. Both factors may interact, further affecting phenotype.
What causes increased phenotypic and genetic variation?
Because natural selection acts directly only on phenotypes, more genetic variation within a population usually enables more phenotypic variation. Some new alleles increase an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce, which then ensures the survival of the allele in the population.
What environmental factors can cause phenotypic variation in animals?
Environment Can Impact Phenotype
Environmental factors such as diet, temperature, oxygen levels, humidity, light cycles, and the presence of mutagens can all impact which of an animal’s genes are expressed, which ultimately affects the animal’s phenotype.
What are the 3 causes of variation?
Major causes of variation include mutations, gene flow, and sexual reproduction. DNA mutation causes genetic variation by altering the genes of individuals in a population. Gene flow leads to genetic variation as new individuals with different gene combinations migrate into a population.
How genotype affect phenotype?
Genotype & Phenotype. Definitions: phenotype is the constellation of observable traits; genotype is the genetic endowment of the individual. Phenotype = genotype + development (in a given environment).
How do you find phenotypic variation?
Variance Components of a Quantitative Trait
- VP = VG + VE + VGE VP = total phenotypic variation of the segregating population. …
- VG = VA + VD + VI and the total phenotypic variance can be rewritten as.
- VP = VA + VD + VI + VE + VGE …
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Is all phenotypic variation heritable?
Misconceptions of the Heritability Concept
al., 2008). Heritability is not the proportion of a phenotype that is genetic, but rather the proportion of phenotypic variance that is due to genetic factors.
How can two organisms have the same genotype but different phenotype?
Due to the presence of a dominant allele, the same phenotype but distinct genotype is possible. A dominant allele always expresses itself when it is present in the genotype. … The other allele is known as recessive when a dominant allele is entirely dominant over another allele.
Do two organisms with the same phenotype have to have the same genotype?
The genetic makeup of individual organisms is the set of inherited traits encoded in DNA. If two individuals have a certain phenotype, does that mean they must have the same genotype? If two individuals have a certain phenotype, it does not mean that they must have the same genotype.
How can the same genotype lead to multiple phenotypes?
Genotype generally remains constant from one environment to another, although occasional spontaneous mutations may occur which cause it to change. However, when the same genotype is subjected to different environments, it can produce a wide range of phenotypes.