Previous studies have shown that phenotypic plasticity is a heritable trait which varies among populations and species (Schlicht- ing, 1986). … Conversely, if plasticity had a low heritability we might expect specialized individuals to evolve.
What is inherent plasticity?
Intrinsically, phenotypic plasticity refers to all kinds of environmentally induced phenotypic variation and it can affect morphological, physiological, and behavioral aspects of an organism’s phenotype, but also its life history. … lysogenic (temperate) life cycles.
Are phenotypic traits heritable?
Phenotypic states are partly heritable by offspring cells. And yet individuals can switch between phenotypic states at rates that greatly exceed those of genetic mutations. Finally, the rate of ‘phenotypic mutation’ is itself under genetic control.
What factors influence phenotypic plasticity?
Phytohormones and leaf plasticity
Leaf shape can be determined by both genetics and the environment. Environmental factors, such as light and humidity, have been shown to affect leaf morphology, giving rise to the question of how this shape change is controlled at the molecular level.
Is phenotypic plasticity natural selection?
Natural selection can only directly ‘see’ phenotypic trait values that are expressed in a given environment (individual points on a reaction norm), rather than the plasticity itself (reaction norm slope)—but selection on plasticity will summarize the net effect of selection on the change in trait values expressed, …
How does phenotypic plasticity relate to evolution?
Phenotypic plasticity can be defined as ‘the ability of individual genotypes to produce different phenotypes when exposed to different environmental conditions’ (Pigliucci et al. … As with any organismal trait, the way in which an individual responds to environmental influences is subject to evolutionary change.
What is an example of phenotypic plasticity in humans?
From a human health perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology.
What is the phenotypic ratio in the pattern of inheritance?
This 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio is the classic Mendelian ratio for a dihybrid cross in which the alleles of two different genes assort independently into gametes.
How do you determine heritability of a trait?
Heritability is expressed as H2 = Vg/Vp, where H is the heritability estimate, Vg the variation in genotype, and Vp the variation in phenotype. Heritability estimates range in value from 0 to 1.
How are the characteristics of one generation passed to the next?
Heritable traits are known to be passed from one generation to the next via DNA, a molecule that encodes genetic information. … Organisms inherit genetic material from their parents in the form of homologous chromosomes, containing a unique combination of DNA sequences that code for genes.
What kind of environment is most likely to create selection for phenotypic plasticity?
Since Bradshaw’s discussion, numerous models of the evolution of phenotypic plasticity indicate that plasticity is favored in heterogeneous environments where different phenotypic optima are present across environments experienced either within the lifetime of an organism or across generations (for example, Berrigan …
What are three ways to study the evolution of phenotypic plasticity?
The evolution of plasticity is modeled in three ways: optimality models, quantitative genetic models, and gametic models.
How do you test for phenotypic plasticity?
One way to quantify phenotypic plasticity is to use analysis of variance (ANOVA). The idea behind ANOVA is to take a variety of genotypes and a variety of environments and assess the resulting phenotype for each genotype-environment pair.
Does phenotypic plasticity initiate developmental bias?
Subsequent adaptation can then arise from the selection on these phenotypes meaning that plasticity sets the initial course for evolution. … This also suggests that plasticity can initiate phenotypic biases through the similar initial responses of ancestral populations.
Are phenotypic variations reversible?
many phenotypic characters of an individual develop and fluctuate continuously and reversibly throughout life in response to environmental change.” Important to note is that, all too often (at least to this animal physiologist), “phenotype” refers to easily observed morphological features (e.g., size, color).
What is phenotypic plasticity in plants?
INTRODUCTION. Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an individual organism to alter its physiology/morphology in response to changes in environmental conditions. This ability is particularly important in plants, whose sessile life-style requires them to deal with ambient conditions.