Phenotypic plasticity of a trait is variation of the target phenotype for a given genotype in different environments. In particular, a reaction norm characterizes plasticity by describing how the target phenotype for a specific genotype varies as a function of an environmental variable.
What is an example of a phenotypic plasticity?
Phenotypic plasticity refers to the ability of a genotype to express different phenotypes depending on the environment in which it resides. For example, genetically identical water flea (Daphnia) clones can differ in their morphology depending on whether reared in the absence or presence of a potential predator.
Is phenotypic plasticity evolution?
The ability to pass changes from one generation to the next is a defining characteristic of evolution. This non-heritable change in the mustard seedling is called phenotypic plasticity, meaning that the organism’s phenotype is flexible and can be influenced by the environment.
What is the best definition of phenotypic plasticity?
Phenotypic plasticity can be defined as ‘the ability of individual genotypes to produce different phenotypes when exposed to different environmental conditions’ (Pigliucci et al. … As with any organismal trait, the way in which an individual responds to environmental influences is subject to evolutionary change.
Is phenotypic plasticity short term?
Phenotypic plasticity, the expression of multiple phenotypes from one genome, is a widespread adaptation to short-term environmental fluctuations, but whether it facilitates evolutionary adaptation to climate change remains contentious.
Is phenotypic plasticity epigenetics?
When epigenetic responses are inherited, whether spontaneous or environmentally induced, the result is selectable phenotypic variation and adaptive evolution11. Alternatively, when epigenetic changes are not inherited, the result is phenotypic plasticity.
What is an example of phenotypic plasticity in humans?
From a human health perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology.
Are all phenotypic traits plastic?
Thus, one could examine the phenotypes of genetically identical individuals and find that they differ phenotypically in different environments, indicating phenotypic plasticity for particular traits. … Behavioral phenotypes are eminently plastic, often in adaptively appropriate ways.
Can phenotypic plasticity be adaptive?
Phenotypic plasticity in Avida can be adaptive or non-adaptive for a given set of environments. Adaptive plasticity shifts net function expression closer to the optimum for the given environments.
Is phenotypic plasticity acclimated?
The ability of a single genotype to generate a variety of phenotypes in response to environmental changes is termed phenotypic plasticity and the resulting increase of tolerance to stressful levels of environmental parameters is known as acclimation.
What is phenotypic plasticity in plants?
INTRODUCTION. Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an individual organism to alter its physiology/morphology in response to changes in environmental conditions. This ability is particularly important in plants, whose sessile life-style requires them to deal with ambient conditions.
Who came up with phenotypic plasticity?
Three decades later, Schmalhausen in Russia and Waddington in Great Britain further developed the concept of phenotypic plasticity. Schmalhausen developed a theory of “stabilizing selection,” arguing that environmentally induced plastic traits, when adaptive, can become genetically fixed (Schmalhausen 1949).
What is the difference between phenotypic plasticity and adaptation?
Local adaptation involves genetic differentiation specific to each environment, whereas phenotypic plasticity allows single genotypes to express different phenotypes under diverse environmental conditions.