What are telomeres and telomerase and how are they related to cancer and aging?

If its telomeres get too short, the cell may die. Often times, these cells escape death by making more telomerase enzyme, which prevents the telomeres from getting even shorter. Many cancers have shortened telomeres, including pancreatic, bone, prostate, bladder, lung, kidney, and head and neck.

What do telomeres and telomerase have to do with cancer?

Cancer cells often avoid senescence or cell death by maintaining their telomeres despite repeated cell divisions. This is possible because the cancer cells activate an enzyme called telomerase, which adds genetic units onto the telomeres to prevent them from shortening to the point of causing senescence or cell death.

What are telomeres and how do they relate to aging?

Telomeres get shorter each time a cell copies itself, but the important DNA stays intact. Eventually, telomeres get too short to do their job, causing our cells to age and stop functioning properly. Therefore, telomeres act as the aging clock in every cell.

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What is the relationship between telomeres and cancer?

It is believed that cancer occurs because a genetic mutation can trigger the production of an enzyme, known as telomerase, which prevents telomeres from shortening. While every cell in the body has the genetic coding to produce telomerase, only certain cells actually need it.

What is the role of telomeres and telomerase?

Telomere shortening can be overcome by telomerase enzyme activity that is undetectable in somatic cells, while being active in germline cells, stem cells, and immune cells. Telomeres are bound by a shelterin complex that regulates telomere lengthening as well as protects them from being identified as DNA damage sites.

How do short telomeres cause cancer?

Once they lose a certain number of bases and become too short, the cell can no longer divide and be replicated. This inactivity or senescence leads to cell death (apoptosis) and the shortening of telomeres is associated with aging, cancer and an increased likelihood of death.

How is telomerase activated in cancer?

Telomerase is tightly repressed in the vast majority of normal human somatic cells but becomes activated during cellular immortalization and in cancers.

What happens with telomerase in immune system cells?

A critical minimum length of telomeres triggers a cell cycle arrest or senescence of the cell. The immune system is highly sensitive to shortening of telomeres as its competence depends strictly on cell renewal and clonal expansion of T- and B-cell populations.

What does telomerase mean?

Listen to pronunciation. (teh-LOH-meh-rays) An enzyme in cells that helps keep them alive by adding DNA to telomeres (the ends of chromosomes). Each time a cell divides, the telomeres lose a small amount of DNA and become shorter.

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What do telomeres and telomerase have to do with cell division and cellular theories of aging?

As cells replicate, telomeres shorten at the end of chromosomes, and this process correlates to senescence or cellular aging. Integral to this process is telomerase, which is an enzyme that repairs telomeres and is present in various cells in the human body, especially during human growth and development.

How is telomere length related to aging and cancer?

Yet, each time a cell divides, the telomeres get shorter. When they get too short, the cell can no longer divide; it becomes inactive or “senescent” or it dies. This shortening process is associated with aging, cancer, and a higher risk of death.

Does telomerase prevent cancer?

“The DNA in telomeres shortens when cells divide, eventually halting cell division when the telomere reserve is depleted.” New results from de Lange’s lab provide the first evidence that telomere shortening helps prevent cancer in humans, likely because of its power to curtail cell division.

Do telomeres and telomerase show promise in the fight against cancer What about aging?

Studies have found shortened telomeres in many cancers, including pancreatic, bone, prostate, bladder, lung, kidney, and head and neck. Measuring telomerase may be a new way to detect cancer. If scientists can learn how to stop telomerase, they might be able to fight cancer by making cancer cells age and die.